開題報告撰寫的方法

開題報告的撰寫主要包括以下幾個方面:

1.開題報告名稱

開題報告名稱就是開題報告名字。這看起來似乎是個小問題,但實際上很多人寫專題名稱時,往往寫得不準確、不恰當,從而影響整個開題報告的形象與質量。那么,如何給開題報告起名稱呢?

(1)、名稱要準確、規范。

準確就是開題報告的名稱要把開題報告研究的問題是什么,研究的對象是什么交待清楚。開題報告的名稱一定要和研究的內容相一致,不能太大,也不能太小,要準確的把研究的對象、問題概括出來。

規范就是所用的詞語、句型要規范、科學,似是而非的詞不能用,口號式、結論式的句型不要用。因為我們是在進行科學研究,要用科學的、規范的語言去表述我們的思想和觀點。

這里有一個專題名稱叫“培養自主學習能力,提高課堂學習效率”,如果這個題目是一篇經驗性論文,或者是一個研究報告,還不錯,但作為專題的名稱,則不是很好的。因為專題就是我們要解決的問題,這個問題正在探討,正開始研究,不能有結論性的語氣。若改為“自主學習能力的培養對提高課堂學習效率的影響”則較為妥當。

(2)、名稱要簡潔,不能太長。

不管是論文或者開題報告,名稱都不能太長,能不要的字就盡量不要,最長一般不要超過20字。

2.研究的目的、意義

研究的目的、意義也就是為什么要研究、研究它有什么價值,研究背景是什么。

這一般可以先從現實需要方面去論述,指出現實中存在這個問題,需要去研究,去解決,本開題報告的研究有什么實際作用。然后,再寫開題報告的理論和學術價值。這些都要寫得具體一點,有針對性一點,不能漫無邊際地空喊口號。

3.研究的指導思想

開題報告研究的指導思想就是在宏觀上應堅持什么方向,符合什么要求等。

這個方向或要求可能是哲學、數學、自然科學、政治理論,也可以是科學發展規劃,也可以是有關研究問題的指導性意見等。

4.研究的目標和假設

開題報告研究的目標和假設也就是課題最后要達到的具體目的,要解決哪些具體問題。

相對于目的和指導思想而言,研究目標和假設是比較具體的,不能籠統地講,必須清楚地寫出來。只有目標明確、假設具體,才能明確工作的具體方向是什么,才能了解研究的重點是什么,思路就不會被各種因素所干擾。

確定專題研究目標和假設時,一方面要考慮專題本身的要求,另一方面還要考慮開題報告組實際的工作條件與工作水平。

5.研究的基本內容

我們有了開題報告的研究目標和假設,就要根據目標和假設來確定我們這個開題報告具體要研究的內容。

相對研究目標和假設來說,研究內容要更具體、更明確,并且一個目標和假設可能要通過幾方面的研究內容來實現,我們不一定是一一對應的關系。

大家在確定研究內容的時候,往往考慮的不是很具體,寫出來的研究內容特別籠統、模糊,把研究的目的、意義當作研究內容,這對我們整個專題研究十分不利。

6.研究的步驟和進度

開題報告研究的步驟和進度,也就是開題報告研究在時間和順序上的安排。

研究的步驟和進度要充分考慮研究內容的相互聯系和難易程度。一般情況下,都是從基礎問題開始,分階段進行,每個階段從什么時間開始,至什么時間結束都要有規定。

7.研究方法和資料獲取途徑

開題報告研究的方法很多,包括歷史研究法、調查研究法、實驗研究法、比較研究法、理論研究法等,但在研究性學習中的開題報告研究方法用得最多的是社會調查法和受控對比實驗法。一個大的專題往往需要多種方法,小的專題可以主要采用一種方法,同時兼用其他方法。

在應用各種方法時,一定要嚴格按照方法的要求,不能只憑經驗、常識去做。比如,要通過調查了解情況,如何制定調查表,如何進行分析,都不是隨隨便便發張表,列一些百分數、平均數就行了。

開題報告研究資料的獲取途徑也很多,包括文獻調查、考察調查、問卷調查、設計并進行實驗、科學觀測等。主要采用哪些資料獲取途徑,一定要經過充分的研究。

8.研究的成果形式

開題報告研究的成果形式包括報告、論文、發明、軟件、課件等多種形式。專題不同,研究成果的內容、形式也不一樣。但不管形式是什么,專題研究必須有成果,否則,就是這個專題沒有完成。

9.研究的組織機構和人員分工

在集體開題報告研究方案中,要寫出專題組組長、副組長,專題組成員以及分工。專題組組長就是本專題的負責人。

專題組的分工必須要分得明確合理,爭取讓每個人了解自己的工作和責任,不能吃大鍋飯,但是在分工的基礎上,也要注意全體人員的合作,大家共同研究,共同商討,克服研究過程中的各種困難和問題。

How to write a research proposal

When you are applying for a research degree, like the PhD, you will veryprobably have to write a research proposal as a part of your application file. A PhD is awarded mainly as the result of your making a genuine contribution to the state of knowledge in a field of your choice. Even though this is not the Nobel Prize yet, getting the degree means you have added something to what has previously been known on the subject you have researched. But first you have to prove you are capable of making sucha contribution, and therefore write a research proposal that meets certain standards. The goal of a research proposal (RP) is to present and justify a research idea you have and to present the practical ways in which you think this research should be conducted.

When you are writing a RP, keep in mind that it will enter a competition, being read in line with quite a few other RPs. You have to come up with a document that has an impact upon the reader: write clearly and well structured so that your message gets across easily. Basically, your RP has to answer three big questions: what research project will you undertake, why is important to know that thing and how will you proceed to makethat research.

In order to draw the researcher’s attention upon your paper, write an introduction with impact, and that leads to the formulation of your hypothesis. The research hypothesis has to be specific, concise (one phrase) and to lead to the advancement of the knowledge in the field in some way.Writing the hypothesis in a concise manner and, first, coming up with agood hypothesis is a difficult mission. This is actually the core of your application: you’re going to a university to do this very piece of research. Compared to this, the rest of the application is background scenery. Take your time to think of it. When you have an idea, be careful atthe formulation. A well-written hypothesis is something of an essay’s thesis: it provides a statement that can be tested (argues ahead one of the possible answers to a problem), it is an idea, a concept, and not a mere fact, and is summed up in one phrase. In some cases, you will have no idea what the possible answer to a problem worth being researched is, but you will be able to think of a way to solve that problem, and find out the answer in the meantime. It’s ok in this case, to formulate a research question, rather than a hypothesis. Let those cases be rare, in anyway.

Another piece of advice when writing your hypothesis, regarding the trendy research fields: chances are great that they’re trendy because somebody has already made that exciting discovery, or wrote that splendid paper that awoke everybody’s interest in the first place. If you’re in one of these fields, try to get a fresh point of view upon the subject; make new connections, don’t be 100% mainstream. This will make the project even more stimulating for the reader. Imagine that you are writing about the trendiest subject, with absolutely no change in the point of view, and you are given the chance to make the research. Trends come and go, fast; what are the chances that, in four years’ time, when your research isdone and you are ready to publish your results, one of those well-knownprofessors who dispose of huge research grants has already said whatever you had to say?

Remember how, in a structured essay, right after the thesis you would present the organisation of your essay, by enumerating the main arguments you were going to present?

Same thing should happen in a RP. After stating your thesis, you should give a short account of your answers to thosethree questions mention earlier. State, in a few phrases, what will be learned from your research, that your project will make a difference, and why is that important to be known. You will have to elaborate on both of these later in the paper.

The next step in writing your proposal is to prove that that particular piece of research has not been done yet. This section is usually called Literature Review. Inside it, you have to enumerate and critically analyze an impressive list of boring bibliography. The conclusion you should – objectively! – reach is that your idea of research has not been undertaken yet. Even more, you use this opportunity to prove solid theoreticalknowledge in the field, and build the theoretical bases of your project. One tip: don’t review all the articles and books in the fields even ifyou mention them in the bibliography list; pay attention in your analysis to those you will build on. Another one: avoid jargon when writing your RP. The chances are great that the person(s) who will read your and another 1000 research proposals are not specialists in that very field – niche you are examining. If you are applying for a grant with or foundation or something similar, it might happen that those reading your paper are not even professors, but recruiters, donors, etc. And even if they actually are professors, one of the reasons busy people like them agree to undertake a huge, and sometimes voluntary, work, is the desire to meetsome diversity, some change from their work – so maybe they’ll read applications for another specialisation. The capacity to get your message across in clear, easy-to-grasp concepts and phrases is one of the winningpapers’ most important advantages.

So far, you have proven you have a research idea, that you are familiar with the field, and that your idea is new. Now, why should your project be worth researching? Because it advances knowledge, ok. But is this knowledge that anybody will need? Maybe nobody knows for sure how the shoelaces were being tied in the XIXth century, but who cares, beyond two lace-tying specialists? Find arguments to convince the reader that s/he should give you money for that research: practical use, accelerating the development of knowledge in your or other fields, opening new research possibilities, a better understanding of facts that will allow a more appropriate course of action are possible reasons. Be clear and specific. Don’t promise to save the world, it might be too much to start with. Even James Bond succeeds that only towards the end of the movie.

We approach now one of the most difficult parts of writing a research proposal: the methodology. In short, what actions are you going to take inorder to answer the question? When will you know whether the hypothesishas been proven wrong, or has survived enough tests to be considered, for now, valid? Those tests and the way you are supposed to handle them to give rigor to your research is what is understood under methods. Methods divide in qualitative (interviews, questionnaires) and quantitative (statistics, stuff that deals intensively with numbers). For some projects qualitative methods are more appropriate, for some quantitative, whilefor most a mixture of the two is adequate. You should pick your methodsand justify your choice. Research methodology, however, is too a complicated thing to be explained here. And this is why it’s so tough: not much attention is given to teaching it in Eastern Europe. Try, before writing your RP, to read a bit more about methodology – on the Internet you will find for sure some articles – and decide which methods suit your project best. Don’t forget: reading theoretical pieces of your work and providing a critical analysis of those is also a kind of research. It’s fine to provide a rough schedule of your research; some grant programs willalso require a detailed budget, even though for scholarships this is unlikely.

Conclusions: After working your way through the difficult methodologicalpart, you only have to write your conclusions. Shortly recap why your hypothesis is new, why it advances knowledge, why is it worth researchingand how, from a practical point of view, are you going to do that. Overall, the capacity of your project to answer the research question shouldcome out crystal clear from the body of the paper, and especially from the conclusions. If this happens, it means you have a well-written RP, and you have just increased you chances for having a successful application.

One last word: how big should your RP be? In most cases, this is specified in the application form. If it is not, we suggest that you keep it atabout 1500 words (that’s 3 pages, single-spaced, with 12 size Times NewRoman). In fewer words it can be really tough to write a good RP. With more you might bore your readers. Which we hope will not happen.

Good luck

相關文章

版權聲明:

本網站(網站地址)刊載的所有內容,包括文字、圖片、音頻、視頻、軟件、程序、以及網頁版式設計等均在網上搜集。

訪問者可將本網站提供的內容或服務用于個人學習、研究或欣賞,以及其他非商業性或非盈利性用途,但同時應遵守著作權法及其他相關法律的規定,不得侵犯本網站及相關權利人的合法權利。除此以外,將本網站任何內容或服務用于其他用途時,須征得本網站及相關權利人的書面許可,并支付報酬。

本網站內容原作者如不愿意在本網站刊登內容,請及時通知本站,予以刪除。